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加拿大開征碳稅 市民汽油水電氣連食品都要漲價

2016-10-4 11:56| 評論: 0|來源: 加拿大開征碳稅 市民汽油水電氣連食品都要漲價|編輯 |刪除

摘要: 加拿大總理杜魯多已經在國會提出開征碳稅(carbon tax),最遲在2018年,對每噸碳排放征收至少10元,之後每年漲10元,到2022年達到每噸碳排放征收50元碳稅。政府稱,碳稅的最終目標是要改變人們的消費習慣,減少燃料 ...
加拿大總理杜魯多已經在國會提出開征碳稅(carbon tax),最遲在2018年,對每噸碳排放征收至少10元,之後每年漲10元,到2022年達到每噸碳排放征收50元碳稅。




政府稱,碳稅的最終目標是要改變人們的消費習慣,減少燃料消耗。那麽對于普通消費者而言,所有與碳有關的消費,諸如汽油,住宅取暖燃油以及不可再生性電能的價格都要上漲,以此來鼓勵大家減少能源消耗,因爲只有減少使用,才能減少交稅。

同時,一些不直接相關的産品也要漲價,包括食品和其他零售商品,因爲這些産品全部要靠柴油動力的貨車來運輸。

渥太華大學助理教授Nicholas Rivers在2012年的一項研究中指出,如果按每噸碳排放征收30元碳稅計算,汽油價格將上漲6%,煤碳價格上漲100%。其他從天然氣、電、公交、食品、家具、汽車、服裝、煙草、服務和住房的價格,統統都會有相應的漲幅。


各省的碳稅價格

目前有85%的加拿大人居住在已經實施,或即將實施碳稅相關計劃的省份。

以卑詩省爲例,該省已經從2008年開始征收碳稅,按每噸碳排放征稅30元計算,每升汽油的碳稅爲6.67分,這使該省的汽油價格成爲加拿大最貴的之一。

在阿爾伯塔省,該省計劃于2018年全面實施碳稅,屆時汽油價格也將上漲到同樣的水平。

按照聯邦自由黨政府的計劃,2022年每噸碳排放征收50元,那麽汽油價格將上漲每升11分。

魁省實施“碳排放及交易計劃”(cap-and-trade plan),這項計劃是根據碳排放交易市場和碳信用額來控制排放,根據En-Pro分析師Roger McKnight在2016年3月一份報告分析,該計劃下每升汽油的稅碳估計爲6分。

安省計劃于2017年實施“碳排放及交易計劃”,根據經濟師的估算,到2020年,安省省民支付的碳稅相當于每噸19.40元。


取暖費碳稅達57%

住宅取暖成本中的碳稅則要看使用何種能源取暖,如果是水電,則不需要付碳稅,如果是天然氣或燃油供暖,就要付碳稅。

在阿爾伯塔省,絕大多數住宅是用天然氣供暖,這意味著暖氣費將大幅上漲。按2018年標准計算,碳稅爲1.51元/GJ。而目前阿省省民的天然氣價格爲2.66元/GJ,碳稅高達57%。

而在卑詩省,天然氣的碳稅是1.49元/GJ。

在新斯科舍省,該省估計,如果每砘碳排放征稅30元,供暖燃油價格將上漲每升8.4分。一旦碳稅上升至每砘50元,所有價格漲幅也要相應增加三分之二。

受碳稅打擊最重的是低收入家庭。爲此,各省都有相應的緩沖計劃。比如,阿省家庭年收入低于9.5萬元的家庭可以申請補助。卑詩省規定年收入在3.8萬元以下的四口之家可以獲得300元的補助。 

Five things to know about Trudeau’s carbon price


"Why do we need a carbon price?" "Are there alternatives?" and "Where does the money go?" are just a few of the 

Why a carbon price?

Putting a price on carbon is meant to give people and companies an incentive to look for lower emission options to save money. The price can come in the form of a specific tax or levy, like the minimum $10 per tonne the federal government has set for 2018, or a more indirect cap-and-trade system.


Which provinces currently have a carbon tax in place?

British Columbia introduced a carbon tax in 2008 and it now stands at $30 a tonne, adding an extra 6.67 cents to each litre of gasoline and 7.67 cents to each litre of diesel. In August, the province said it would stick to that price until other jurisdictions catch up.

Alberta announced last November it will have a $20-per-tonne carbon levy in place next year, rising to $30 a tonne in 2018. For both provinces, the tax applies to gasoline, diesel, natural gas and propane.


What are the alternatives?

Quebec joined California in a cap-and-trade carbon market in 2014, and Ontario is set to start trading in the same market next year. Cap-and-trade systems set economy-wide limits on emissions and then establish a carbon market, within which industries are allotted permits for emissions that they can buy and sell, with the costs passed on to consumers.

The federal government says provinces that go this route have to set emissions caps that correspond to how much a specific carbon price is expected to reduce emissions.


Where does the money go?

Provincial governments that have implemented carbon taxes get to keep that revenue, while the federal government said it will also return funds from any federally-imposed carbon tax to the jurisdiction of origin.


British Columbia’s system is designed to be revenue neutral, meaning the government will take in no extra money from the tax and instead return it through tax cuts and credits. Alberta’s system returns some of the costs to lower-income consumers in the form of a rebate, and small business taxes have been reduced from three per cent to two per cent to help offset costs. But about two-thirds will go towards spending more generally on diversifying the economy, including on renewable energy, transit infrastructure and energy efficiency measures.


Who is exempt?

Alberta and B.C. have several exemptions to the tax, such as those that apply to the agricultural sector and some air travel. Large emitters in Alberta including oilsands operations fall under a different system that sets specific emission reduction goals.


The federal government said any carbon pricing should minimize competitiveness impacts and avoid simply driving emitting industries abroad, particularly for trade-exposed sectors.

 


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